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Pronation is the natural motion of the foot as it roles inward after the foot makes contact with the ground. It gives the foot the opportunity to act as a shock absorber for the body and adapt to the contour of the ground. Too much pronation will cause the arch of the foot to flatten excessively placing stress and pressure on tissues and ligaments of the foot. Over pronation can lead to numerous foot problems including plantar fasciitis, ankle pain, shin pain, knee pain, bunions, mortons neuroma, chondromalcia patallae and lower back pain.
It is important to identify the cause of overpronation in order to determine the best treatment methods to adopt. Not all treatments and preventative measures will work equally well for everyone, and there may be a little trial and error involved to get the best treatment. A trip to a podiatrist or a sports therapist will help you to establish the cause of overpronation, and they will be able to tell you the best treatments based on your specific degree of overpronation and the cause. Overpronation has many causes, with the most common reasons for excessive pronation listed, low arches, flexible flat feet, fallen arches, gait abnormalities, abnormal bone structure, abnormal musculature, bunions, corns and calluses.
If ignored, overpronation can lead to complications such as hammer toes, corns and calluses, shin splints, hallux rigidus and many more foot and lower leg problems. Hammer toes appear when the toes are placed under too much pressure and the ligaments and muscles in the toes begin to reduce in size, leading to the curvature of the toes and making them look like little hammers. Overpronators can develop hammertoes if they don?t wear an appropriate pair of shoes. Corns and calluses also appear as a result of overpronation. They form in response to excess pressure, and overpronators may find that they have excessive hard skin on the balls of the feet and inside edge of the big toe. It is the body?s way of protecting against excessive forces and friction. They can be painful.
Look at the wear on your shoes and especially running trainers; if you overpronate it's likely the inside of your shoe will be worn down (or seem crushed if they're soft shoes) from the extra strain.
Non Surgical Treatment
If you overpronate, you should talk with a foot and ankle specialist, especially if symptoms have not developed yet. Questions you may want to ask your doctor include what are the best running shoes on the market? Where can I find those shoes? If over-the-counter orthotics don?t work, how long should I wait before contacting you for custom-made orthotics? On my next visit, what type of diagnostic testing should I expect? If I limit the amount of time I spend running, will my overpronation symptoms disappear? What additional treatment options can we try?
Exercises to strengthen and stretch supporting muscles will help to keep the bones in proper alignment. Duck stance: Stand with your heels together and feet turned out. Tighten the buttock muscles, slightly tilt your pelvis forwards and try to rotate your legs outwards. You should feel your arches rising while you do this exercise. Calf stretch: Stand facing a wall and place hands on it for support. Lean forwards until stretch is felt in the calves. Hold for 30 seconds. Bend at knees and hold for a further 30 seconds. Repeat 5 times. Golf ball: While drawing your toes upwards towards your shins, roll a golf ball under the foot between 30 and 60 seconds. If you find a painful point, keep rolling the ball on that spot for 10 seconds. Big toe push:
Stand with your ankles in a neutral position (without rolling the foot inwards). Push down with your big toe but do not let the ankle roll inwards or the arch collapse. Hold for 5 seconds. Repeat 10 times. Build up to longer times and fewer repetitions. Ankle strengthener: Place a ball between your foot and a wall. Sitting down and keeping your toes pointed upwards, press the outside of the foot against the ball, as though pushing it into the wall. Hold for 5 seconds and repeat 10 times. Arch strengthener: Stand on one foot on the floor. The movements needed to remain balanced will strengthen the arch. When you are able to balance for 30 seconds, start doing this exercise using a wobble board.
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